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立足英语教材,挖掘写作素材

作者:jks 来源: 发布日期:2017年09月20日 浏览次数:

一、缩写——用缩影的形式把握课文

缩写是在保留原文体裁、题材、主要内容、结构顺序、人称角度等的前提下概括原文内容、压缩篇幅使之成为一篇内容简明、语言简练、中心突出的短文。缩写时一定要准确完整地把握原文,有关主题的主干切不可任意删减,也不可随便摘取其中部分要点了事。如下面一篇Milu Deer Return to China的缩写:

Long long ago Milu deer was a usual animal in China. Some of them had been sent to other countries, such asEngland. In China, people killed them, and milu deer disappeared during the Ming, Qing periods. They were kept in the great park. The number of them increased very fast.

这篇缩写看上去很精炼,但作者忽视了短文的题目Milu Deer Return to China这个中心和重点,它丢掉了Milu deer回归中国;中国为了拯救曾经在中国非常普通后来又消失了的Milu deer而做出的巨大努力;在中国的几个Milu deer中心,Milu deer受到了很好地研究和保护,它们的数量才不断增加这些事实。

以下是常用的几种缩写方法:

1.对于叙事记人的文章,宜以情节或人物性格为主线,通过列出重要情节或性格特点概述全文。例如,The Rescue (SEFC 1A Unit 4)一文以时间顺序展开几分钟内的突发事件,我们可用表示时间脉络的副词,如First; Next; Then; Finally来概述全文。

First, Flora saw Jeff running and waving his arms. She turned around and saw a wall of water advancing toward her quickly. Next, the water swept Jeff and Flora down and they are struggling for their lives. Then they tried to get to the house and climbed the stairs to be safe from water. Finally, part of the house fell down but they were safe next to the chimney.

2.对于科普短文、说明文或说理文章,通过列出段落主题句(topic sentence)可迅速捕捉文章的主要论点,规划文章的框架结构。如The Properties of Water (SEFC 2B Unit 13)一文, 每段的主题句归纳如下:

Para. 1: general idea

Para. 2: chemical structure of water (two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom)

Para. 3: salinity of water (about 3.5%)

Para. 4: density of water (1000kg/m3)

Para. 5: heat capacity of water (relatively high)

Para. 6: ocean motion

Para. 7: significance of water to nature

在此基础上,只要恰当地运用一些关联词,添加一些支撑句即可写出一篇很好的课文概要。

缩写有利于培养学生分析、概括的逻辑思维能力及提炼语言的能力,它是改写、续写的基础,是仿写的前提。

二、仿写——用类似的情境模拟课文

英国著名作家斯蒂文森谈学习写作的经验时说过,学习写作除多练以外,还要多模仿。仿写既能反馈出学生对课文的体裁及重要句型的掌握程度,又能促进学生对课文所用语言材料的系统掌握,取得举一反三的效果。那么,要求学生模仿什么呢?

1.仿写课文思路

仿写最重要的是模仿思路。比如,记叙文要有贯穿全文的线索,以使事件或故事发生、发展的脉络清楚;描写文要有合理的逻辑顺序,其展开的顺序要符合认识规律,反映由具体到抽象、由浅到深的思维过程;说明文要选择合适的角度,按照一定的时间或空间顺序来说明事物。只有掌握了各种文体的写作思路,学生在写作时才能做到思路清晰,层次分明。

2.仿写课文结构

高中英语写作的文体主要是记叙文、议论文等,在仿写时,要注意学习其结构特点。如记叙文,多采用三段式的谋篇布局形式,并采用顺叙的方法。第一段交代时间、地点和人物,第二段交代事件发生的过程,第三段叙述事件的结果。议论文也多采用三段式:第一段摆出论题,第二段列出正方观点,第三段列出反方观点。也可采用四段式:第一段摆出论题,第二段列出正方观点,第三段列出反方观点,第四段展示作者自己的观点。了解了这些文体结构之后,学生才有可能写出结构紧凑的文章来。

3.仿写课文句式

课文中常出现许多习惯表达方式和一些特殊句式,还有一些适合某些特定情景、场合的常用句子,教师要向学生多强调、示范。特别是一些常用于文章开头、结尾和中间起承接作用的惯用语,要让学生多练习,并能运用到写作中去。(杨利娴 2003

例如,在New Zealand (SEFC 1B Unit 18)课文教学中,首先引导学生分析课文是怎样围绕中心选择和组织素材的,让学生掌握对地理位置的描述,对气候、环境、资源、历史以及人口、风俗习惯的描写,使学生学会对有关国家、城市、旅游景点的写作方法。然后以Taiwan Island, China, Our City等为题让学生模仿课文的写作方法进行写作训练。

总之,教材中出现的各种文体都可用来指导学生仿写,但“写作任务、话题、语言结构、文体等要求应与高中学生认知能力发展、生活体验和语言能力相适应”(《课标》)。

三、改写——用全新的样式诠释课文

改写是一种广泛采用的语言教学策略,《课标》也要求能根据课文改编短剧或根据所读文章进行转述。改写是在保持原文主体内容不变的基础上,改变文章的体裁、人称、语言、结构等方面。尤其是,对短文与对话相互改写时要注意语言、时态、时间表达等方面的改变。

例如,在学习了The Necklace (SEFC 1B Unit 15)一文后,要求学生从剧中不同人物的角度,按照故事发生的顺序将这出小短剧改写为一篇叙述文体的短文。

又如,可让学生将At the Tailor's shop (SEFC 2A Unit 10)一文改写成短剧。当然,还可引导学生以不同的人称角度去改写。如:

1. Tell the story to your partner in the past tense. Start like this: A man went into a tailor's shop to buy a suit. All the money he had in his pocket was a million-pound note...

2. Rewrite the story At the Tailor's Shop, as told by Tod, the shop assistant. Start like this: One Monday morning I was working in the shop as usual...

教材中可改写的地方很多,或整体或局部,这些都需要教师潜心研究,细心挖掘。通过对课文的改写,不仅加深了学生对课文的理解,也培养了学生的逻辑思维能力和语言组织能力。

四、续写——用创造的想象引申课文

《课标》指出:“课堂教学活动的设计应有利于发挥学生的创造力和想象力。”续写就是用创造性的思维丰富课文,即对课文内容做适当的补充和完善,给原本没有结局的故事加上一个合理的,或出乎意料的结局。如The Necklace(SEFC 1B Unit 15)一文,当Mathilde得知为之辛劳十年的项链竟是假的,故事的结局会怎么样?要求学生续写短剧。同学们想象的结局不一而足,很有创意,如:

1. She killed herself.

2. She bought a glass necklace and changed it for her real diamond necklace.

3. She divorced her husband and married a man with a lot of money.

4. She began to make a living by making false necklaces and cheating others of a lot of money.

5. She got a lot of money from her kind friend and lived a happy life.

在口头表达的基础上,同学们续写出了不少精彩的片断。

当然,还可从其他角度引导学生续写本剧,如:Choose one situation to re-write a scene the other way round.

1. If Mathilde had not borrowed the necklace from Jeanne, ...

2. If Mathilde had not lost her necklace at the ball, ...

3. If Jeanne had told Mathilde that the necklace was made of glass, ...

4. If Mathilde had just agreed to wear a flower at the ball, ...

5. If Mathilde's husband had been wealthy, ...

续写是学生综合能力的体现,能加深学生对课文的理解,使学生尝到创作的乐趣。

五、评写——用理性的思维演绎课文

评写是就所学课文或阅读材料进行评述。通过分析原文中的内容和观点,提出自己的看法。评论可以是全面的,也可以着眼于一点;可以是赞同原文的观点,也可以提出异议。

高中英语教材中有很多与现实生活贴近的话题,可让学生就这些话题阐述自己的看法。例如,在学习了Animal Experiments (SEFC 1B Unit 16)之后,让学生以Should animal testing be OK? 为题作文,有学生写道:I think animal testing is a good idea and it is OK. So scientists should continue testing on animals which are not rare animals. It can help human beings to fight against diseases. 在学习了Great Women (SEFC 1B Unit 17)这一单元后,让学生以My View on Women为题作文。同学们各抒己见,写出了不少有见地的文章来。

此外,对于教材中的文学作品,可让学生写读后感或人物形象分析等。例如,在读了A Christmas Carol(SEFC 3 Unit 7)之后,一个学生写道:I think it is a really moving story. I learnt that happiness and friendship are more important than money in the world. I will be a kind and warm-hearted man.

又如,在读了A Tale of Two Cities (SEFC 3 Unit 7)之后,引导学生写读后感:Which of the characters do you like most? Why?

S1. In my opinion, Sydney Carton is the real hero of the story. His love for Lucie knows no bounds. What he did for Lucie was unforgettable, tearful and bittersweet. For love, he sacrificed everything, even life! This makes him one of the strongest characters in the story, especially because his act is so unselfish.

S2. Who I like most in the story is Dr. Manette. He is honest and kind but suffers the persecution actually. When Charles was put into prison, he visited Charles but became mad again after returning. The prison was the nightmare for him, but for his daughter, he suffered from it again.

在读了The Merchant of Venice(SEFC 2B Unit 19)之后,要求学生分析剧中主要人物形象。许多学生发表了各自独到的见解,如:Shylock is cruel, greedy, selfish, cold-blooded, but he suffers the loss of his daughter, his property, and, very importantly for him, his religion. So, we should have mercy on him.

评写这种“一半依材,一半发挥”的半自由习作方式有利于发展学生的批判性思维能力和创新精神。评写既承接了短文的缩写、仿写和改写阶段,又为后期写作阶段打下了基础。

 

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